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China’s Hydrogen Strategy: National vs. Regional Plans

Commentary by Yushan Lou & Anne-Sophie Corbeau • October 31, 2023

While the US and European medias have dedicated significant bandwidth to the topic of low-carbon hydrogen in the United States and Europe, they have reported far less on unfolding developments around that topic in China. This disparity is especially notable because China stands as the foremost global player in hydrogen production and consumption.[1] The country’s substantial market size and extensive industrial infrastructure not only facilitate fast technological advancements in the hydrogen space, but also offer the potential to achieve economies of scale—two developments that can significantly influence the global hydrogen market landscape. In light of these circumstances, it is essential to understand China’s hydrogen strategy, including how the country plans to start decarbonizing its current hydrogen consumption and expand future use and production.

A notable feature of China’s hydrogen strategy is that it is not, in fact, singular, but instead comprised of a national strategy and a multitude of regional strategies. Since the release of China’s Medium and Long-Term Strategy for the Development of the Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021–2035)(referred to as “the National Plan”) in March 2022,[2] there has been significant development in the country’s hydrogen space. However, the National Plan’stargets for renewable hydrogen production may appear conservative given the scale of hydrogen consumption in the country: a range of 100,000 to 200,000 tons per year by 2025 represents only 0.3 to 0.6 percent of the 33 million tons (Mt) of fossil-based hydrogen consumed in China in 2020.[3] (For context, in 2022, electrolytic hydrogen’s production level was still below 100,000 tons globally, and as of early 2023 about 4.5 Mt of renewable hydrogen globally by 2025 has been committed to, planned, and announced.[4] Some regions appear more bullish, including the EU with its aspirational renewable hydrogen target of up to 1 Mt by 2024.[5]) By contrast, provinces, cities, and municipalities across China have introduced their own hydrogen development plans that establish far more ambitious renewable hydrogen goals. Hence, the provincial plans viewed together may offer a more accurate picture of China’s hydrogen industry over the coming decades than the National Plan.

This commentary analyzes these somewhat divergent national and local hydrogen strategies comparatively to provide a nuanced understanding of China’s evolving hydrogen landscape. Its key findings are as follows:

  • The targets of China’s provinces combined are far more ambitious than its national targets, with Inner Mongolia leading the way. The latter province is aiming to reach 480,000 tons of renewable hydrogen production per year by 2025 (2.5 to 5 times the national target). China may have set a conservative national renewable hydrogen target to test the waters, allowing local governments to charge ahead.  
  • Inner Mongolia could reach around 60 percent of its 2025 target based on projects that are currently under construction (and excluding those still in the planning stage, which may or may not materialize). This region alone would largely meet the national target for renewable hydrogen. While the provinces’ targets may not be fully met, they provide a more realistic view of what China can accomplish. 
  • Though climate mitigation is certainly one key underlying driver of China’s hydrogen strategy, industrial and economic motivations seem more prominent in the short term. China has placed less emphasis on carbon intensity than the EU and the US, as evidenced by the Chinese government’s lack of a formal definition of renewable hydrogen.

An Overview of China’s Hydrogen Landscape

China holds a substantial share of global hydrogen production, contributing roughly one-third of total output at around 33 Mt per year.[6] This production heavily relies on fossil fuels (79 percent)—and about 21 percent of it originates as industrial by-product—resulting in 360 Mt of CO2 emissions.[7] Meanwhile, the contribution of renewable hydrogen remains marginal, accounting for less than 0.1 percent of production.[8] As shown in Figure 1, China’s industrial sector plays a pivotal role in driving the country’s hydrogen consumption.[9]

Rather than evenly distributed across the country, hydrogen production in China is concentrated in the northwest and northeastern regions (see Figure 2). The highest production levels are in the Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia (hereafter “Inner Mongolia”) and Shandong, each of which accounts for more than 4 Mt per year, followed by Xinjiang, Shaanxi, and Shanxi, at more than 3 Mt per year.

The northwest and northeast regions are also known for high coal output, underscoring the strong link between hydrogen production and coal resources. Abundant coal reserves in places like Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Shandong (north China), which cater to the nearby petrochemical and chemical sectors, support hydrogen production and consumption, which typically occur within the same facility.[10] The northwest is also positioned to become a hub for renewable hydrogen supply due to its high abundance of renewable energy resources.[11] However, given that east and southeast China are anticipated to emerge as significant demand centers soon, a new challenge in the form of a geographical disjuncture between hydrogen supply and demand will likely present itself. China’s lack of transport infrastructure represents an additional challenge: the country currently possesses only 400 kilometers of hydrogen pipelines.[12] Recent initiatives to develop infrastructure such as short-distance hydrogen pipelines, hydrogen refueling stations, and liquid hydrogen storage facilities are primarily concentrated in four major industrial clusters—the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the Ningdong Energy and Chemical Industry Base (see Figure 2)—so may not be able to connect renewable hydrogen supplies with primary demand centers.

China’s National and Regional Hydrogen Development Strategies Compared

In September 2021, China announced what it called its “dual carbon goal” of carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060.[13] As a first step toward achieving that goal, China’s State Council introduced an Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking Before 2030, which emphasized the role of hydrogen in sectors such as steel, petrochemicals, and transportation (including heavy-duty freight), as well as technologies such as renewable hydrogen production.[14] This was soon followed by the announcement of China’s National Plan, which lays out the vision for China’s hydrogen industry by 2035. The National Plan strategically positions hydrogen as: (1) an important part of China’s future energy system; (2) an important carrier for achieving a low-carbon energy transition in China; and (3) a key emerging industry and development direction of future industries in China.[15] While most of China’s specific targets in this strategic plan are for 2025, many other countries’ national hydrogen strategies outline quantified targets for 2030 (and beyond), which can create the perception that their strategies are more ambitious. China’s plan, however, includes the long-term vision to fully establish the hydrogen industry value chain by 2035. Nonetheless, among the most important of these 2025 targets is the deployment of 50,000 fuel cell vehicles and the production of 0.1 to 0.2 Mt of renewable hydrogen toward a broader goal of reducing annual CO2 emissions by 1 million to 2 million tons by 2025.[16]

Other highlights from the National Plan include an aim to establish a hydrogen supply system that uses both industrial by-product hydrogen and renewable hydrogen; meanwhile, the use of carbon capture and storage technologies to produce hydrogen from fossil fuels is absent from the strategy. The short-term emphasis on utilizing by-product hydrogen (which is unique to China) is due to the substantial volume of wasted by-product hydrogen (largely fossil-based) extracted from industrial waste gas in sectors such as coking, chlorine, and propane dehydrogenation. Aligned with this plan, numerous local governments (e.g., Anhui, Shanxi, Jilin, Hebei, Shandong, and Hunan) prioritize by-product hydrogen as the primary supply source through 2025. The development of collection and purification technologies for this hydrogen is also given priority across regions.

The National Plan marked a significant shift in China’s overall energy strategy by making hydrogen a fundamental component of its emerging energy system, positioning the country well to achieve global leadership in hydrogen technologies such as fuel cell vehicles and electrolyzers. Out of the 34 regions that make up China,[17] 18 have independently introduced their own hydrogen industry 14th Five-Year Plan, a strategic blueprint outlining a province’s economic and social development goals over a five-year period, while the others have incorporated hydrogen into their broader industrial strategies (see Table 1). Given their consideration of diverse provincial resources, infrastructure capacities, and strengths, these regional-level strategies hold valuable insights. One critical conclusion that can be drawn from them is that local policy and industry developments are already moving far beyond the conservative targets of the National Plan. The regions’ cumulative targets for renewable hydrogen amount to over 1.1 to 1.2 Mt by 2025, or 5 to 12 times the national target (see Table 1).[18] For instance, Inner Mongolia has an ambitious objective of 480,000 tons of renewable hydrogen by 2025, more than twice the national target.

Localized hydrogen strategies are tailored to leverage regional advantages and infrastructure, leading to varied approaches across provinces. Regions with abundant renewable resources, such as Sichuan with its hydropower potential, prioritize renewable hydrogen production via hydropower. In contrast, coal-rich regions, such as Shanxi, primarily focus on industrial by-product hydrogen from coal-chemical production. Regions with an abundance of both renewable and coal resources, such as Inner Mongolia, adopt a diversified approach.

Different regions also prioritize different applications according to their unique needs. For instance, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Shaanxi aim to deploy hydrogen for fuel cell forklifts and trucks to contribute to mining operations, while Zhejiang focuses on leveraging hydrogen for combined power and heating as well as fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) in its public and port logistics transportation system. On the other hand, all regions emphasize establishing hydrogen refueling stations and deploying FCEVs (see Table 1), with many identifying specific quantities of each that should be achieved. This is consistent with China’s longstanding policy of promoting FCEV development, both passenger vehicles and trucking, through the expansion of hydrogen refueling infrastructure and other related technological innovations.[50] The National Planonly reinforces this policy.

Overall, China’s regional strategies show that local governments will play a crucial role in the early stages of China’s hydrogen development, enabling the central government to “test the waters” in the hydrogen sector.[51] Local government officials and senior management in state-owned enterprises are also collaborating with central ministries to implement hydrogen-related policies, such as incentivizing FCEV development and establishing demonstration projects for other hydrogen applications, and the potential for career advancement incentivizes them to align with the national government’s development objectives, which include the advancement of a hydrogen economy and aligning the “dual carbon” goal.[52]

Inner Mongolia: A Leader in Renewable Hydrogen Development

Inner Mongolia occupies a distinctive position among China’s regions: its 14th Five-Year Plan on hydrogen development, announced in 2022, sets the most ambitious renewable hydrogen production target by far at 480,000 tons per year by 2025. The region has undergone rapid expansion in terms of installed renewable hydrogen production capacity, often developed by major state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and will host the world’s largest renewable hydrogen coal-to-chemical project, which is currently under construction.[53]

Several factors contribute to Inner Mongolia’s ability to assume a leadership role in hydrogen development in China. The region:

  • possesses substantial solar and wind potential, with a technically exploitable wind and solar energy resources of around 57 percent and 21 percent of China’s potential, respectively, making it ideal for renewable hydrogen production.[54]
  • has a pre-existing local hydrogen demand. Local industries, such as steel manufacturing, ammonia production, and oil refining, are known to demand significant amounts of hydrogen.[55] The region’s 14th Five-Year Plan for hydrogen development highlights that over 1.3 Mt of industrial by-product hydrogen (from coal-chemical processes) is generated annually, 87 percent of which is consumed by industries.[56] Replacing coal-based hydrogen ensures a substantial near-term demand for renewable hydrogen.
  • benefits from its proximity to the eastern economic hub (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). The 400-kilometer Ulanqab-Beijing pipeline is not only China’s first long-distance hydrogen pipeline, but also the first to be included in national planning. With an initial capacity of 0.1 million tons per annum (Mtpa) and the potential to expand to 0.5 Mtpa, it connects Ulanqab in Inner Mongolia to Yanshan in Beijing.[57]

In order to determine whether local targets are a better benchmark than the national renewable hydrogen target, it is crucial to estimate whether Inner Mongolia will achieve its 2025 target.

Based on publicly accessible statistics, Inner Mongolia hosts 50 renewable hydrogen projects, of which three, yielding a combined 10,884 tons/year hydrogen production capacity, are operational. Moreover, 21 projects with a cumulative capacity of over 300,000 tons/year are under construction and projected for completion by 2023 or 2024 (see Table 2). This represents 63 percent of the 480,000 tons/year by 2025 goal established by the province’s five-year plan. Another 26 projects with an aggregate production potential of 1 million tons/year are planned, with around 460,000 tons expected to be online by 2025.

Inner Mongolia may still fall short of its ambitious 2025 target, since there is uncertainty whether planned projects will actually materialize. The region’s ability to reach its ambitious target depends on projects currently under construction as well as additional planned projects that are supposed to begin construction soon (see Table 2). Given that planned projects may never materialize, they can be excluded from the 2025 framework, but those under construction should be included because they are expected to be completed by 2024 at the latest. Based solely on operational projects and those already under construction, Inner Mongolia’s anticipated annual hydrogen output surpasses the national 2025 target of 100,000–200,000 tons/year. With planned projects included, Inner Mongolia’s potential annual renewable hydrogen production capacity could reach 1.4 million tons, exceeding the aggregated renewable hydrogen production targets announced across all regions. Most projects are located within the industrial zone adjacent to the petrochemical plants in which they would replace gray hydrogen.

SOEs are heavily involved in the development of renewable hydrogen projects (see Appendix). Within Inner Mongolia, 32 of the 50 existing projects are spearheaded by SOEs, and an additional 6 involve collaborative efforts between SOEs and private enterprises. In contrast, private companies are responsible for only 12 projects. This pattern indicates that China’s approach to advancing renewable hydrogen is characterized by state-driven facilitation of the market.

Defining Hydrogen

Questions may be raised about the extent to which the hydrogen produced from these plants will be renewable. The China Hydrogen Alliance, a state-backed think tank, proposed the Standard and Evaluation of Low-Carbon Hydrogen, Clean Hydrogen, and Renewable Hydrogen framework in 2021. However, this framework establishes a relatively unambitious threshold of 14.51 kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent (kgCO2e) per kilogram hydrogen (kgH2) for low-carbon hydrogen (a value that is above the current carbon intensity of fossil-based hydrogen produced through steam methane reforming) and 4.9 kgCO2e/kgH2 for renewable hydrogen (while the EU’s threshold is 3.38 kgCO2e/kgH2).[58] Moreover, the differentiation between hydrogen produced from renewable sources and other variants remains ambiguously addressed in official Chinese government documents, including the recently published hydrogen industrial guideline.[59]

Indeed, both the central government and local governments refer to “hydrogen” and “green hydrogen” without providing explicit definitions. Ambiguity around hydrogen production methods is also reflected in the PRC Energy Law (Draft), which does not differentiate between various hydrogen production approaches.[60] Consequently, China’s current hydrogen policy lacks mechanisms to regulate the sources or carbon intensity of hydrogen (e.g., by requiring that “renewable hydrogen” be produced exclusively from renewable electricity to power the electrolyzer).

This lack of a precise definition is not so surprising given that many regions and countries are still in the process of considering how to precisely define renewable hydrogen. The EU approved a definition only in June 2023 in a Delegated Act,[61] while the US is still considering how to calculate the carbon intensity of hydrogen in the Inflation Reduction Act. However, on the provincial level in China, there does seem to be an attempt to articulate a definition for renewable hydrogen. In 2023, the Inner Mongolia government, as well as several other provincial governments, began to distinguish between grid-connected and off-grid hydrogen production projects. Grid-connected projects are able to use grid electricity, while off-grid electrolyzers use direct power supply from wind and solar plants.[62] However, one notice published by the Inner Mongolia Bureau of Energy states that “grid-connected projects, in principle, should not purchase electricity from the grid….the electricity purchased by the power grid company shall not exceed 20 percent of the total renewable power generated by the project.”[63] If “grid-connected” projects do not use grid electricity, these new projects would notably satisfy the definition of “temporal correlation” (as used in Europe), which emphasizes that hydrogen producers must ensure that renewable electricity generation and hydrogen production coincide temporally. Despite limited focus on carbon intensity in Chinese discussions of renewable hydrogen production in official government documents, this rule in Inner Mongolia indicates an attempt to produce electrolytic hydrogen solely from renewable energy.  


Local policy and industry developments in China are already moving far beyond the national strategy and its conservative targets, making them a better indicator of China’s ambitions, especially related to renewable hydrogen development. Notably, Inner Mongolia’s hydrogen production target is more than twice the national target and seems potentially within reach based on projects under construction.

Unlike strategies employed in the EU and the US, China’s current hydrogen development strategy is still primarily driven by the desire for economic and industrial growth rather than immediate climate mitigation, as evidenced by the limited emphasis it places on measuring hydrogen’s carbon intensity. While several regions have suggested restrictions on fossil-based hydrogen, such as banning coal-based production as part of a gradual, long-term shift toward renewable hydrogen, there is limited broader effort to stop fossil-based hydrogen. However, climate mitigation does exert influence. This is visible at the national level through the National Plan’s elevation of hydrogen as a key component of China’s low-carbon energy transition, and even more so at the regional level, such as Inner Mongolia’s promotion of renewable hydrogen to replace gray hydrogen utilized by various coal-chemical industries.

China’s approach to hydrogen development also sets it apart from other countries, as it emphasizes utilizing industrial by-product hydrogen, particularly in coal-producing regions, in the short term. Moreover, its approach to developing hydrogen applications is pragmatic, with a strong short-term emphasis on the transportation sector (particularly fuel and heavy-duty trucks), building on the success of China’s electric vehicles industry.

Overall, China’s hydrogen development landscape presents a complex mix of challenges and opportunities. As the global community navigates the intricacies of the hydrogen economy, understanding China’s unique approach, characterized by a blend of centralized directives and regional initiatives, is paramount, providing insights into the future trajectory of the world’s largest hydrogen market.



[1] International Energy Agency, “Global Hydrogen Review 2022,” September 2022,

[2] National Energy Administration (国家能源局), “Medium and Long-Term Strategy for the Development of the Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021–2035)” (氢能产业发展中长期规划[2021–2035 年]), March 24, 2022,  

[3] International Energy Agency, “Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China,” November 2022,

[4] International Energy Agency, “Global Hydrogen Review 2023,” September 2023,; Hydrogen Council, “Hydrogen Insights,” May 2023,

[5]European Commission, “State Aid: Commission Approves €246 Million Dutch Scheme to Support Renewable Hydrogen Production,” July 28, 2023,

[6] The State Council, “Green Hydrogen to Rise in China,” May 5, 2022,

[7] International Energy Agency, “Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China,” November 2022,

[8] World Economic Forum, “Green Hydrogen in China: A Roadmap for Progress,” June 2023, Some sources suggest renewable hydrogen production was around 500,000 tons in 2020, but this data was unconfirmed. See Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action, “Prospects of Renewable Hydrogen in China, and Its Role in Industrial Decarbonization,” April 2023,

[9] International Energy Agency, “Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China,” November 2022,

[10] Xiaohan Gong, Rainer Quitzow, and Anatole Boute, “China’s Emerging Hydrogen Economy: Policies, Institutions, Actors,” RIFS Study, January 2023,

[11] Fuquan Zhao et al., “A Review of Renewable Energy Transition under China’s Carbon Neutrality Target,” Sustainability 14 (November 2022): 15006,

[12] “China Plans to Build 400-km Hydrogen Pipeline,” China Daily, April 2023,

[13] “China Headed towards Carbon Neutrality by 2060; President Xi Jinping Vows to Halt New Coal Plants Abroad,” UN News,  September 21, 2021,

[14] National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), “Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking before 2030,” October 27, 2021,


[15] National Energy Administration (国家能源局), “Medium and Long-Term Strategy for the Development of the Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021–2035)” (氢能产业发展中长期规划[2021–2035 年]), March 24, 2022,

[16] Ibid. 

[17] China is divided into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four centrally controlled municipalities, and two special administrative regions, totaling 34 provincial-level administrative regions, all of which shall be referred to as “regions” in this commentary. This study analyzes hydrogen developments in the Chinese mainland region only, and the two special administrative regions are excluded.

[18] These targets exclude regions that are planning to develop renewable hydrogen but do not have quantified production targets.

[19] Beijing Municipality Economic and Information Bureau (北京市经济和信息化局), “Beijing Municipality Hydrogen Industry Development Implementation Plan (2021–2025)” (北京市氢能产业发展实施方案[2021–2025年]), August 16, 2021,  

[20] Chongqing Municipal Economic Information Commission  (重庆市经济信息委), “Guiding Opinions on the Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry in Chongqing” (重庆市氢燃料电池汽车产业发展指导意见), March 17, 2020,

[21] Tianjin Municipal People’s Government Office (天津市人民政府办公厅), “Tianjin Municipality Hydrogen Industry Development Action Plan (2020–2022)” (天津市氢能产业发展行动方案[2020–2022年]), January 21, 2020,; Tianjin Development and Reform Commission (天津市发展和改革委员会), “Tianjin Municipality 14th Five-Year Energy Industry Development Plan” (天津市能源发展“十四五”规划), February 19, 2022,

[22] Shanghai Development and Reform Commission (上海市发展和改革委员会), “Shanghai Municipality Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan (2022–2035)” (上海市氢能产业发展中长期规划[2022–2035 年]), June 20, 2022,

[23] Heilongjiang Provincial People’s Government (黑龙江省人民政府), “Heilongjiang Province Medium and Long-term Science and Technology Development Plan (2021–2035)” (黑龙江省中长期科学和技术发展规划[2021–2035年]), September 28, 2021,

[24] Zhejiang Provincial People’s Government (吉林省人民政府), “Hydrogen Jilin Medium and Long-term Development Plan (2021–2035)” (氢动吉林”中长期发展规划[2021–2035年]), October 21, 2022,; Zhejiang Provincial People’s Government (吉林省人民政府) “14th Five-Year Plan for Energy Development in Jilin Province” (吉林省能源发展“ 十四五 ” 规划), August 29, 2022,

[25] Liaoning Development and Reform Commission (辽宁省发展和改革委员会), “Liaoning Province Hydrogen Industry Development Plan (2021-2025)” (辽宁省氢能产业发展规划 [2021–2025 年]), July 5, 2022,

[26] Hebei Development and Reform Commission (河北省发展和改革委员会), “Hebei Province Hydrogen Industry Development 14th Five-Year Plan” (河北省氢能产业发展“十四五”规划), August 16, 2021,

[27] Shanxi Development and Reform Commission (山西省发展和改革委员会), “Shanxi Province Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan (2022–2035)” (山西省氢能产业发展中长期规划[2022–2035年]), August 5, 2022,

[28] Jiangsu Provincial Department of Industry and Information Technology (江苏省工业和信息化厅), “Jiangsu Province Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry Development Action Plan” (江苏省氢燃料电池汽车产业发展行动规划), August 27, 2019,

[29] Zhejiang Provincial People’s Government (浙江省人民政府), “The 14th Five-Year Plan for Energy Development in Zhejiang Province” (浙江省能源发展“十四五”规划), May 7, 2022,; Zhejiang Development and Reform Commission (浙江省发展和改革委员会), “Zhejiang Province Implements Plan to Accelerate the Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry” (浙江省加快培育氢燃料电池汽车产业发展实施方案), November 8, 2021,

[30] Anhui Development and Reform Commission (安徽省发展和改革委员会), “Anhui Province Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan” (安徽省氢能产业发展中长期规划), November 14, 2022,

[31] Fujian Development and Reform Commission (福建省发展和改革委员会), “Fujian Province Hydrogen Industry Development Action Plan (2022–2025)” (福建省氢能产业发展行动计划[2022–2025年]), December 21, 2022,

[32] Jiangxi Development and Reform Commission (江西省发展和改革委员会), “Jiangxi Province Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan (2023–2035)” (江西省氢能产业发展中长期规划[2023–2035年]), January 19, 2023,

[33] Shandong Provincial Energy Bureau (山东省能源局), “Shandong Province Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan (2020–2030)” (山东省氢能产业中长期发展规划[2020–2030年]), December 6, 2021,

[34] Henan Development and Reform Commission (河南省发展和改革委员会), “Henan Province Hydrogen Industry Medium and Long-Term Development Plan (2022–2035)” (河南省氢能产业发展中长期规划[2022–2035年]), September 8, 2022,

[35] Hubei Development and Reform Commission (湖北省发展和改革委员会), “Several Measures to Support the Development of the Hydrogen Energy Industry” (关于支持氢能产业发展的若干措施), November 4, 2022,; Hubei Provincial People’s Government (湖北省人民政府), “The 14th Five-Year Plan for Energy Development in Hubei Province” (湖北省能源发展“十四五”规划), April 20, 2022,

[36] Hunan Development and Reform Commission (湖南省发展和改革委员会), “Hunan Province Hydrogen Industry Development Plan” (湖南省氢能产业发展规划), November 18, 2022,

[37] General Office of the People’s Government of Guangdong Province (广东省人民政府办公厅), “The 14th Five-Year Plan of Energy Development in Guangdong Province” (广东省能源发展“十四五”规划), March 17, 2022,; Guangdong Development and Reform Commission (广东省发展和改革委员会), “Action Plan for Accelerating the Construction of Fuel Cell Vehicle Demonstration City Clusters in Guangdong Province (2022–2025)” (广东省加快建设燃料电池汽车示范城市群行动计划[2022–2025年]), August 11, 2022,

[38] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission (广西壮族自治区发展和改革委员), “Guangxi Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Mid- and Long-Term Plan (2023­–2035)” (广西氢能产业发展中长期规划[2023–2035年]), August 10, 2023,

[39]Hainan Provincial People’s Government (海南省人民政府), “Development Plan of Clean Energy Vehicles in Hainan Province” (海南省清洁能源汽车发展规划), July 18, 2019,; Hainan Provincial Development and Reform Commission (海南省发展和改革委员会), “Hainan Province’s 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and Outline of Long-term Goals for 2035” (海南省国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标纲要), March 31, 2021,

[40] Sichuan Provincial Economic and Information Technology Department (四川省经济和信息化厅), “Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Plan of Sichuan Province (2021–2025)” (四川省氢能产业发展规划 [2021–2025 年]), September 21, 2020,

[41]Guizhou Provincial Industry and Information Technology Department (贵州省工业和信息化厅), “Guizhou Province 14th Five-Year Hydrogen Industry Development Plan” (贵州省“十四五”氢能产业发展规划), June 30, 2022,

[42]  Yunnan Provincial Department of Industry and Information Technology (云南省工业和信息化厅), “The 14th Five-Year Plan for Industrial Green Development in Yunnan Province” (云南省工业绿色发展 “十四五”规划), October 13, 2021,

[43] Department of Economy and Information Technology of Tibet Autonomous Region (西藏自治区经济和信息化厅), “Tibet Autonomous Region’s Action Plan for Promoting the High-Quality Development of Advanced Manufacturing” (西藏自治区推动先进制造业高质量发展行动方案), May 16, 2023,

[44] Shaanxi Provincial Development and Reform Commission (陕西省发展和改革委员会), “The Notice For Shaanxi Province’s 14th Five-Year Plan Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Plan, Shaanxi Province’s Three-Year Action Plan for Hydrogen Energy Industry Development (2022–2024), and Shaanxi Province’s Several Measures to Promote the Development of Hydrogen Energy Industry Notice on Policies and Measures” (陕西省发展和改革委员会关于印发《陕西省“十四五”氢能产业发展规划》《陕西省氢能产业发展三年行动方案[2022–2024年]》《陕西省促进氢能产业发展的若干政策措施》的通知), July 18, 2022,

[45] General Office of the People’s Government of Gansu Province (甘肃省人民政府办公厅), “Guiding Opinions of the General Office of the People’s Government of Gansu Province on the Development of Hydrogen Energy Industry” (甘肃省人民政府办公厅关于氢能产业发展的指导意见), December 29, 2022,

[46] Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission (宁夏回族自治区发 展改革委), “Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Plan” (宁夏回族自治区氢能产业发展规划), November 15, 2022,

[47] Qinghai Province Development and Reform Commission (青海省发展和改革委员会), “Qinghai Province Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Three-Year Action Plan (2022–2025)” (青海省氢能产业发展三年行动方案[2022–2025年]), January 12, 2023,; General Office of the People’s Government of Qinghai Province (青海省人民政府办公厅), “Qinghai Province’s 14th Five-Year Plan Energy Development Plan” (青海省“十四五”能源发展规划), February 21, 2022,  

[48] Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission (新疆维吾尔自治区发展和改革委员会), “Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Hydrogen Industry Three-Year Action Plan (2023–2025)” (自治区氢能产业发展三年行动方案[2023–2025年]), May 9, 2023,

[49] Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Energy Bureau (内蒙古自治区能源局), “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 14th Five-Year Hydrogen Industry Development Plan” (内蒙古自治区“十四五”氢能发展规划), February 28, 2022,

[50] National Energy Administration (国家能源局), “Medium and Long-Term Strategy for the Development of the Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021–2035) (氢能产业发展中长期规划[2021–2035 年],” March 24, 2022,

[51] Xiaohan Gong, Rainer Quitzow, and Anatole Boute, “China’s Emerging Hydrogen Economy: Policies, Institutions, Actors,” RIFS Study, January 2023,

[52] Ibid.

[53] Ibid.

[54] Inner Mongolia Daily (内蒙古日报), “The Amount of New Energy Technology that Can Be Developed in Inner Mongolia Exceeds 1 Billion Kilowatts” (内蒙古新能源技术可开发量超10亿千瓦), August 28, 2022,

[55] 21SPV News, “Why Does Inner Mongolia Develop Hydrogen Energy?” (内蒙古凭何发力氢能?), November 25, 2021,

[56] Inner Mongolia New Energy Network (内蒙古新能源网), “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region ‘14th Five-Year’ Hydrogen Energy Development Plan” (内蒙古自治区“十四五”氢能发展规划),  March 1, 2022,

[57] “China Plans to Build 400-km Hydrogen Pipeline,” China Daily, April 2023,

[58] CHN Energy (国家能源集团), “China Hydrogen Alliance Unveils the World’s First ‘Green Hydrogen’ Standard,” January 1, 2021,

[59] Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China (中华人民共和国政府), “Six Bureaus Jointly Issued the ‘Guidelines for the Construction of Hydrogen Energy Industry Standard System (2023 Edition)’” (六部门联合印发《氢能产业标准体系建设指南[2023版]》), August 8, 2023,

[60] National Energy Administration (国家能源局), “Announcement by the National Energy Administration on the Public Solicitation of Opinions on the Draft of the Energy Law of the People’s Republic of China” (国家能源局关于《中华人民共和国能源法[征求意见稿]》公开征求意见的公告), April 3, 2020,

[61] European Commission, “Renewable Hydrogen Production: New Rules Formally Adopted,” June 20, 2023,

[62] Topsperity Securities (德邦证劵), “Hydrogen Energy Series Report (1): Hydrogen Fuel Cells” (氢能系列报告[一]:氢燃料电池-“氢”风杨柳万千条,百亿市场尽舜尧), May 2022,

[63] Inner Mongolia New Energy Network, “Notice of the Energy Bureau of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on the implementation of the Xing’an League Jingneng Coal Chemical Renewable Energy Green Hydrogen Substitution Demonstration Project and Other Wind and Solar Hydrogen Production Integration Demonstration Projects” (内蒙古自治区能源局关于实施兴安盟京能煤化工可再生能源绿氢替代示范项目等风光制氢一体化示范项目的通知), January 5, 2023,

[64] International Energy Network/Hydrogen Energy Collection (国际能源网/氢能汇), “37 Projects! Production Capacity of 650,000 tons/year! Inner Mongolia Green Hydrogen Rise” (37项目!产能65万吨/年!内蒙绿氢崛起), January 11, 2023,

[65] China Energy News (中国能源网), “Overview of 40 Green Hydrogen Projects in Inner Mongolia” (内蒙古40个绿氢项目一览), July 31, 2023,

[66] China Energy News (中国能源网), “China’s First Ten-Thousand-Ton New Energy Hydrogen Production Project Successfully Produces the First Batch of ‘Green Hydrogen’ in Inner Mongolia” (我国首个万吨级新能源制氢项目成功在内蒙古产出第一方“绿氢”), June 30, 2023,!view.shtml?id=276251.

[67] Inner Mongolia New Energy Network (内蒙古新能源网), “Notice on Implementing the Xing’an League Jingneng Coal Chemical Renewable Energy Green Hydrogen Replacement Demonstration Project and Other Wind and Light Hydrogen Integration Demonstration Projects” (关于实施兴安盟京能煤化工可再生能源绿氢替代示范项目等风光制氢一体化示范项目的通知), January 5, 2023,

[68] Ordos Municipal People’s Government (鄂尔多斯市人民政府), “Notice of the Ordos Municipal People’s Government on the Issuance of the Three-Year Action Plan for Hydrogen Energy Industry Development” (鄂尔多斯市人民政府关于印发氢能产业发展三年行动方案的通知), April 18, 2022,

[69] Century New Energy Network (世纪新能源网), “Jingneng Chengannur ‘Wind-Solar-Hydrogen Storage’ Integrated Demonstration Project” (京能查干淖尔“风光火储氢”一体化示范项目配套制氢站投产), September 20, 2023,

[70] Sohu News (搜狐新闻), “Inner Mongolia’s 1.52 Million Tons of Zero-Carbon Hydrogen Ammonia (Green Ammonia) Project Approved for Public Display” (内蒙古152万吨零碳氢氨[绿氨]项目获批公示), December 28, 2022,

[71] Sohu News (搜狐新闻), “Investment of 745 Million Yuan, Inner Mongolia Green Ammonia Project Record Approval” (投资7.45亿元 内蒙古绿氢项目备案批复), February 6, 2022,

[72] Sohu News (搜狐新闻), “Total Investment of 20.5 Billion! Inner Mongolia Implements 100,000 Tons of Wind and Light Hydrogen Integration Project” (总投资205亿!内蒙古实施10万吨年风光制氢一体化项目), December 24, 2022,

[73] Sohu News (搜狐新闻), “Annual Production of 600,000 Tons! Jingneng and Inner Mongolia Sign to Develop Wind, Light, Hydrogen Storage, and Green Ammonia Project!” (年产60万吨!京能和内蒙签约开发风光储氢制绿氨项目!), August 19, 2022,

[74] Polaris Solar Network (北极星太阳能光伏网), “Total Investment of 10 Billion Yuan! China Power Construction Manzhouli City 1.5GW Wind and Light Hydrogen Integration Demonstration Project Signed” (总投资100亿元!中电建满洲里市1.5GW风光制氢一体化示范项目签约), April 7, 2023,

[75] (国际能源网), “50,000 Tons of Green Hydrogen! Inner Mongolia Wind and Light Hydrogen Ammonia Integration Project Approved” (5万吨绿氢!内蒙风光储氢氨一体化项目获批), September 19, 2023,

[76] (国际能源网), “Total Investment of 33 Billion! Annual Production of 50,000 Tons of Green Hydrogen! The World’s Largest New Energy PEM Hydrogen Production Project Signed!” (总投资330亿!年产5万吨绿氢!全球最大新能源PEM制氢项目签约!), September 19, 2023,

[77]  Sohu News (搜狐新闻), “Investment of 1.13 Billion Yuan, Inner Mongolia Green Hydrogen Replacement Demonstration Project Record” (投资11.3亿元 内蒙古绿氢替代示范项目备案), June 29, 2023,

[78]  Chifeng City Natural Resources Bureau (赤峰市自然资源局), “Approval of the Energy Internet Zero Carbon Hydrogen Ammonia Integration Demonstration Project (Wengniuteqi Wind Power) Land Pre-examination and Site Selection Opinion” (关于赤峰市能源物联网零碳氢氨一体化示范项目[翁牛特旗风]用地预审与选址意见书的批复), April 20, 2023,

[79] Baotou City Development and Reform Commission (包头市发展和改革委员会), “Approval of the Baotou City Damaoqi Wind and Light Hydrogen Green Chemical Integration Project” (关于包头市达茂旗风光制氢绿色化工一体化项目的批复), July 18, 2022,

[80] Uxin Banner People’s Government (乌审旗人民政府), “100,000 Tons/Year Liquid Sunlight—Carbon Dioxide Plus Green Hydrogen to Produce Methanol Technology Demonstration Project Power Transmission Line Unit Social Stability Risk Assessment Publicity” (10万吨/年液态阳光—二氧化碳加绿氢制甲醇技术示范项目输电线路单元社会稳定风险评估公示), March 07, 2023,

[81] Seetao (见道), “Investment of 50 Billion! Inner Mongolia’s New Green Hydrogen Ammonia Project” (总投资50亿!内蒙古新建绿氢制氨项), May 24, 2023,

[82] Polaris Hydrogen Network (北极星氢能网), “10,000 Tons of Green Hydrogen! Guohong Hydrogen Energy Joins Hands with Wushenqi and Qingdao Urban Investment to Build an Integrated Wind, Light, and Hydrogen Storage Project” (万吨绿氢!国鸿氢能携手乌审旗、青岛城投共建风光氢储一体化项目), August 24, 2022,

[83] Gas Ecosphere (气体圈子), “Ordos Hydrogen Production and Hydrogenation Integrated Project” (鄂尔多斯制氢加氢一体化项目), September 5, 2023,

[84] (国际能源网), “Signing of the Integrated Wind and Light Hydrogen Production Project in Fengzhen City, Inner Mongolia” (内蒙古丰镇市风光制氢一体化项目签约), March 21, 2023,

[85] State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (国务院国有资产监督管理委员会), “State Power Investment Corporation Inner Mongolia Company Builds a Source-Grid-Load-Storage-Use System to Create Circular Economy 2.0” (国家电投内蒙古公司构建源网荷储用体系 打造循环经济2.0版本), July 6, 2022,

[86] People’s Government of Ulanhot City (乌兰浩特市人民政府), “The People’s Government of Ulanhot City Holds a Signing Ceremony for the Industrialization Project of Wind Power Hydrogen Storage” (乌兰浩特市人民政府举行风电氢储产业化项目签约仪式), May 19, 2023,

[87] Polaris Hydrogen Network (北极星氢能网), “Investment of 200 Million! Inner Mongolia 3000 Kg/Day! Hydrogen ‘Production, Storage, Addition, and Transportation’ Integrated Project Signing” (投资2亿!内蒙古3000公斤/日!氢能“制 储 加 运”一体化项目签约), June 19, 2023,

[88] Asia Chemical Consulting (亚化咨询), “Total Investment of 3.2 Billion, Yili Clean Energy and State Power Investment Corporation Jointly Develop Green Electricity-Green Hydrogen-Green Ammonia Project!” (总投资32亿,亿利洁能与国家电投联合开发绿电-绿氢-绿氨项目!),

[89] Polaris Wind Network (北极星风力发电网), “Shenneng Chifeng Linxi Integrated Project Officially Started!” (深能赤峰林西一体化项目正式开工奠基!), June 29, 2023,

[90] (国际能源网), “International Hydrogen Energy Metallurgical Chemical Industry Demonstration Zone New Energy Hydrogen Production Co-Production Carbon-Free Fuel Supporting Wind and Solar Power Integrated Demonstration Project Started” (国际氢能冶金化工产业示范区新能源制氢联产无碳燃料配套风光发电一体化示范项目开工), May 4, 2023,

[91] Ordos People’s Government (鄂尔多斯人民政府), “E’qi Wind and Solar Hydrogen Integration Green Ammonia Project Started Construction” (鄂旗风光制氢一体化合成绿氨项目开工), June 27, 2023,

[92] Ordos People’s Government (鄂尔多斯人民政府), “Ordos City Wushen Banner Wind and Solar Integration Green Hydrogen Chemical Demonstration Project Phase II Approved” (鄂尔多斯市乌审旗风光融合绿氢化工示范项目二期获批), March 9, 2023,

[93] Ordos People’s Government (鄂尔多斯人民政府), “400,000 kW Wind and Solar Hydrogen Integration Demonstration Project Settled in Hangjin Banner” (40万千瓦风光制氢一体化示范项目落户杭锦旗), January 13, 2023,

[94] Baotou City Development and Reform Commission (包头市发展和改革委员会), “Reply on the Baotou City Damao Banner Wind and Solar Hydrogen and Green Flexible Chemical Integration Project” (关于包头市达茂旗风光制氢与绿色灵活化工一体化项目的批复), March 25, 2022,

[95] Ordos People’s Government (鄂尔多斯人民政府), “Sinopec Xingxing Inner Mongolia Green Hydrogen New Energy Co., Ltd. Wind and Solar Integration Green Hydrogen Chemical Demonstration Project Officially Launched” (中石化新星内蒙古绿氢新能源有限公司风光融合绿氢化工示范项目正式启动), February 20, 2023,

[96] Dalate Banner People’s Government (达拉特旗人民政府), “Autonomous Region Wind and Solar Hydrogen Integration Demonstration Project Started Construction in Ordos City, Our Banner Set Up a Sub-Venue” (自治区风光制氢一体化示范项目在鄂尔多斯市集中开工,我旗设分会场), August 28, 2022,

[97] Polaris Hydrogen Network (北极星氢能网), “¥345 Million! Huadian Heavy Industries Signs a Contract for the 200MW New Energy Hydrogen Production Demonstration Project in Damaoqi” (3.45亿!华电重工签署达茂旗200MW新能源制氢工程示范项目), November 16, 2022,

[98] Ordos People’s Government (鄂尔多斯人民政府), “Start of the First Batch of Photovoltaic Hydrogen Production Integrated Projects in Otog Front Banner” (鄂托克前旗首批光伏制氢一体化项目集中开工), December 29, 2021,

[99] Ibid.

[100] Yijin Holo Banner People’s Government (伊金霍洛旗人民政府), “Government Work Report—Presented at the Fourth Session of the Fourth People’s Congress in Nalintao Town on March 17, 2023” (政府工作报告——2023年3月17日在纳林陶亥镇第四届人民代表大会第四次会议上), March 17, 2023,

[101] Polaris Hydrogen Network (北极星氢能网), “Total Investment of About ¥7 Billion, Beijing Jingneng Clean Energy Starts Construction of Wind and Solar Power Hydrogen Production Project,” December 28, 2021,

[102] Century New Energy Network (世纪新能源网), “¥47.8 Billion Green Hydrogen + Coal-to-Olefins Project Officially Started in Inner Mongolia,” March 17, 2023,

[103] (人民网), “Ulanqab 1.5 Million kW ‘Wind-Solar-Fire Hydrogen Integration’ Large Wind Power Photovoltaic Base Project Started,” April 12, 2023,

[104] (国际能源网), “Baotou City Hydrogen Industry and Renewable Energy Integration Project and 14MW Distributed Wind Power and Hydrogen Project Started in Baogang,” July 13, 2023,


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